Animals and the sounds they make!

Animals and the sounds they make!


Moo. Moo. Moo. Moo, moo, moo, moo, moo. Moo. Moo. Hey, cow. What are you doing? Moo. This is a cow, and the cow
lives in not a house, a barn. Do you like cows?
Are they delicious? I’m going to eat you, cow. Don’t do it!
Okay, so today… Hi, everyone out there. My name’s Ronnie. If you’ve
got children sitting around, bring them here, they’re going to
learn something, you’re going to learn something.
It’s going to be fantastic. I promise I won’t say bad words. Maybe just one. So, today I’m going
to teach you-moo, barn-animal sounds -fun, fun, fun-in English. And while your kids are
learning this, you are going to be practicing pronunciation. I even do it right now. So
learn English animal noises, practice your pronunciation, have fun with your kids, and
eat a hamburger. I can’t think of anything better for you to do right now. The first animal, as I said, delicious, is
chuck la moo a cow. A cow says moo. If I go up to the board here, I have a cow. A cow
says moo. Sometimes the sounds in English and the words that we use for the sounds are
the same. With a cow, it’s moo, moo, moo, moo, moo, moo, moo all around. If you’re really,
really, really good at cow noises, you can even go maaa. You try. No. Do it again. One more time. A cow goes… Yeah, I like it. I like it. Okay, next one. Quack, quack. Do you know
what noise that is or what animal makes that noise? Quack, quack, quack. It is a duck.
Quack. Now, a duck does not live in a barn. Quack. A duck lives in the water, and they’re
really cool because they can fly and swim. Awesome. Also delicious. I would eat duck.
Have you eaten duck? Quack. So, a duck says quack. Now, ladies and gentlemen, it’s really
difficult in English sometimes for me to hear if you are saying “duck” or if you are saying
“dog”. Everyone from around the world, I don’t care what country you’re from, this is really,
really hard, and this is where you get to practice your pronunciation. So, when you want
to say this guy-quack, quack-you’re going to say: “duck”. It rhymes with the word “truck”.
Mm-hmm. If you want to say man’s best friend, it’s a dog. Dog. Okay? I have a dog, he’s really cute. You want
to see him? You ready? Do you have a dog? This is my dog. Woof, woof. Sometimes dogs go
woof, woof. It depends how big they are. My dog’s pretty small and he says woof, woof. In English, a dog
says woof, woof. Woof, woof, woof, woof, woof, woof. And he actually… Dogs don’t talk. Did
you know that? Oh, sorry, they do talk, but when they talk, the language they’re
lear-… It’s not English, it’s bark. So dogs bark, but the sound that we make is woof,
woof. And the language that they speak is bark. Not barf, bark. So, we have a dog says
woof, and we have a-I didn’t eat it-a duck says quack. Duck, dog. And this
guy is a cow, and he says moo. Woo-hoo. Next up, again we have to be careful with
our pronunciation because if you don’t say the “p” on this animal, sheep, or if you say
the e’s wrong, I think you’re saying ship. Ships don’t really make
any noises, do they? Kids, ships? No. Ships kind of go: “Unh,
I’m a ship.” But this guy, a sheep… A sheep says maaa or if
it’s a boy it says baaa. So boy sheep say baaa, and girl sheep say maaa,
maaa. Are you a boy sheep or a girl sheep? If you’re a boy
sheep, you go baaa. If you’re a girl sheep, go maaa. Make your best sheep noise. Go! Oo, I liked it. Okay, so sheep.
Baaa or maaa. Next one, one of my favourites. I’ve
ridden one. Oh, I’ve forgotten something. Delicious, delicious, never tried, Ronnie hates sheep. This is the only food
that people really, really, really like, lamb, mutton also known
as. Guess what? That’s a sheep you’re eating. It’s probably the only animal that I don’t
like to eat. So, please don’t ever feed me sheep or lamb. I will… I just
won’t eat it. I don’t like it. The next one up, one of my personal favourites is
ee-aw, ee-aw. Ready? Ee-aw. Or we say hee-haw. I like ee-aw better. It is one of the most
funny animals in the world, a donkey. Ee-aw. Do you have a pet donkey? I don’t. I have
a dog, not a donkey. This is a donkey. Donkeys say ee-aw. Mm-hmm. Next up, [snorts] we have a pig. Delicious again.
Now, unfortunately, I lost my pig. I don’t have a pig anymore. I think somebody
ate my pig. They had bacon, or pork, or a nice roast. So I don’t have a pig, but I have
a picture of a pig if you’d like to see. His name’s Bob. This is my pig, Bob.
And pigs say oink, oink. They also do something called snort, so they go [snorts]. Try it. [Snorts]. You got to breathe in
through your noise. [Snorts]. Or if you can’t do the [snorts],
which is super cool, you can go oink, oink, oink, oink. So pigs… So oink or [snorts]. Now,
this noise, in English, we say snort. Sometimes when we laugh a lot, [snorts],
we snort when we laugh. That’s funny. A little embarrassing for some people. I think
it’s pretty funny. Do you snort when you laugh? Have you ever had milk? Mm-hmm. You drink the
milk and you laugh, and it comes out your nose? [Snorts]. Milk everywhere.
Fun times. This little guy, he’s a mouse. Squeak, squeak.
“Mice” in the plural, but “mouse” in the singular. He’s really, really, really, really small.
“I’m a mouse and I like to eat cheese.” So this is adorable little mouse.
Do you eat mice? Ronnie’s never eaten a mouse.
Have you eaten a mouse? Do you know what?
If you barbequed me a mouse, I would probably eat
it, and it would say: “Squeak, squeak, squeak, don’t eat me, Ronnie. Squeak,
squeak, squeak. I’m just a mouse. Give me some cheese.” I’m not going to eat him.
He’s too cute. So, a cow says moo, a duck says quack, a
dog says woof, a sheep says baaa or maaa, a donkey says ee-aw, a pig says oink or [snorts]
if you want, and a mouse says squeak, squeak. Are you ready for some more? Are you ready?
Yeah, okay. Let’s go. What’s next? Oh, this guy, this guy.
One of my favourites. Ribbit. Can you do that? Ribbit. It’s taken me years to perfect that.
This guy is called-ribbit-a frog. He does not live in a barn. He lives in a pond
or in water, and yeah, I’ve eaten him, too. Damn, I just eat all the animals. That’s all right.
Ribbit. So, the name of this guy is a frog, and the noise that he makes or she makes is ribbit,
ribbit, ribbit. Now, I bet you you can jump like a frog. I can jump like a frog. Ribbit,
ribbit. Can you jump like a frog? Try it. Get your Mom and Dad to do it, too. Come on,
Mom and Dad, jump. Are you a frog family now? Good. Uh-oh, uh-oh. Hide, everyone, hide. It’s a
snake. Do you like snakes? Snakes are quite silly, aren’t they? This is a purple snake,
and sometimes snakes are poisonous, so that means they will bite you and you will die.
Have you eaten snake? I haven’t. Have I…? Nope, I’ve never eaten snake. Maybe that’s
next for dinner for Ronnie is eat a snake. Snakes make a hiss noise, so this guy goes
ssss, ssss. When you are learning to speak English, it’s really, really, really important
that you be able to say “ssss”, and not “shh” or “cr-lah”, any other noises. So, ladies and
gentlemen, when you say this sound: ssss, your teeth, your mouth is a little bit open,
and your tongue is putting the air through so it’s a really nice ssss, “s” sound. This
will help you. One thing that’s difficult in English is the difference between the “ssss”
sound and the “shh” sound. Now, when you want to say this animal, the sheep, you got to
make a mouth like this and go: “Shheep”. It’s like you’re telling someone to be quiet,
so it’s sheep. You don’t want to say “seep”, you want to say “sheep”. When you make the snake
“s” it’s like ssss, so you say “ssssnake”. Good. Oh. Meow. Oh, uh-oh. What is it? Meow.
Do you know what that is? Meow, meow, meow, meow,
meow, meow, meow. Oh, it’s a cat. Meow. Do you
have a cat in your house? Does your cat have a name? Meow. I had a cat. I didn’t eat it. I
know you were thinking I ate it. It ran away. So, his name was Fluffy, and when
I was a child, I was five years old and the cat just ran away. I don’t know where he is,
but the noise that a cat makes says meow. So, a cat says meow. Meow. Now, maybe your
cat has babies or one baby. A baby cat is called a kitten, and a kitten, because it’s
not old enough to talk properly yet, says mew, mew. Okay, let’s try.
A cat says meow, and a kitten says mew. If cats and kittens and lions and tigers and bears are really
happy, they will do something called purr. I don’t know how to purr. [Purrs]. No, can’t.
Can you purr? [Purrs]. Oop, that’s better. [Purrs]. Oh, I’m purring. [Purrs and pants].
So when you touch a cat’s back or when you pet the cat, it goes [purrs].
It means: “Yeah, I like that! Woo-hoo!
Pet me more, ma.” Next up, oo, another cat, big cat, it’s called
a lion. It’s got big hair. Lions make the noise roar. They open their…
Can you roar like a lion? Do it. Mm, louder. Do it again. Roar. Be a crazy lion. Roar. So lions make
the noise and the sound of roar. Roar. But you just can’t say… You’re never going to see
a lion go roar. You got to roar like a lion. Oh, one of my favourites, the good old rooster.
Now, the rooster, you might look at this and go: “Ronnie, that’s
clearly a chicken,” and delicious, but a
rooster’s a boy chicken. And the cool thing about boy chickens is they have
mohawks right there. So they’re punk rock chickens. And roosters do not lay eggs, because
they’re boys. You see? So, a boy chicken has a mohawk and it does not lay an egg. The
noise it makes is one of my favourite. Maybe you have a rooster near your house. Maybe
you’re sleeping and in the morning, very early in the morning, you hear cock-a-doodle-doo. That was this guy. Roosters
say cock-a-doodle-doo. Your chance. Go. Ready?
Cock-a-doodle-doo. Cock-a-doodle-doo, cock-a-doodle-doo. So, roosters, boy chickens, cock-a-doodle-doo.
Girl chickens… Girl chickens talk too, they say bawk, bawk, bawk. Bawk, bawk,
bawk, bawk, bawk, bawk, bawk, bawk. I don’t know how to spell that, though. You can
practice. Girl chickens say bawk, bawk, bawk, bawk, and boy chickens say
cock-a-doodle-doo. Cock-a-doodle-doo. It depends
on how manly they are. One of my favourite
animals, never eaten it, it’s very, very difficult
for me to see these because I don’t really live in a tree and
hang out at nighttime. This is an owl. Maybe you have seen lots of movies with owls. Now,
owls are supposed to be really, really smart. I don’t know whether they’re that smart.
Hey, owl, are you smart? “Yes.” Oh, this guy’s really smart, he
told me. An owl makes a noise like hoot. So if we write it in English, it says hoot. But if you listen to it, it’s almost
like he’s asking a question, he’s saying: “Who? Who?” Who? You. “I am an owl,” I say. Who? So
it’s like the English question: Who? The last one, maaa, maaa, is a horse.
Maaa. Horses are delicious. No. I’ve eaten a horse, too. I’ve eaten horse in Japan. And
the cool thing about a horse is they make a sound like this [claps], that’s a horse running. There’s
a horse, there’s a horse. So the horses make the noise, we call it a neigh, but
when you do it with a sound it goes neigh, neigh. So, I want you right now think about this:
Which one is your favourite animal? Cow, duck, dog, sheep, pig,
frog, snake, cat, kitten. Today you have a very,
very important thing to do. You must act like this animal and only
speak like this animal for five minutes. I always pick cat because I think
that we could have conversations. Meow, meow, meow, meow, meow,
meow, meow (www.engvid.com), meow, meow, meow, meow, meow,
meow, meow, like a cat, meow. Meow, meow, meow,
meow, meow, meow. Meow, meow, meow, meow, meow. Meow.

ALLY BURNETT – SINGER & SONGWRITER

ALLY BURNETT – SINGER & SONGWRITER


My name is Ally Burnett and I’m a singer-songwriter. I originally got interested in music when
I was about four years old and it was just sort of a natural thing for me and I really
can’t even explain it it just I woke up one day and I started singing and never stopped. I grew up moving around a lot. I was raised by two very wonderful loving
supportive parents who really encouraged me to chase my dreams and go after everything
that I ever wanted. I spent a lot of my time growing up in choir
and theater just kind of keeping busy with the things that I love to do. My brother was actually a drug addict for
many years and you know really affected the lives of everybody in the family and I saw
how it affected him and he ended up going to jail. And so you know for me I didn’t really want
that to be a part of my life. I didn’t want that to happen to
me. And because it’s you know it’s pretty common
in the scene that I’m in and with what I do and it’s there and it’s always gonna be there
unfortunately. But I didn’t want that to be my lifestyle. And I didn’t want it to affect me in that
way and so I made a you know a very conscious effort to not put myself in those situations
and not do that to myself. And it’s just very hard watching somebody
that you love go through that and you know it’s very powerful. And for
me it really opened my eyes. I wouldn’t want to put my family through what
he put the family through and you know all the people who love and care about you. So for me it was a little bit,
it’s like it’s a little bit bigger than just you. It affects everybody around you and so that’s
personally kind of helped keep me clean and keep me off drugs. I feel like the most successful people are
the people who say no to that you know what I mean. Success isn’t something you have to learn
you know. Success is it’s how you view it. It’s not how nobody else can
tell you that you’re successful or not. If you feel successful that’s more what it’s
all about, for me personally. You know I feel I’ve done all of this stuff. I’ve had all these placements and done all
this on my own with no manager, with no record label. And so you know for me I feel like a success. And there are plenty of people out there that
will try to say “oh well you’re not famous, you’re not on top 40 radio.” Well I’m successful to me so that’s all that
matters. I think the things that inspire me the most
of my music it’s typically for me just life in general. Things I love, things I don’t love. I am definitely one of those songwriters that
writes from experience. I write what I know. So if I’m happy I’m gonna write a happy song. If I’m in love you know I like to showcase
that by you know writing a song that perfectly suits that and is kind of you know romantic. And if I’m heartbroken well I have you know
whole albums about that. So for me I’m just kind of find my inspiration
from the things that happen to me in my life. My name is Allie Burnett and my natural high
is music. What’s yours?

The Incredible Sounds of the Falcon Heavy Launch (BINAURAL AUDIO IMMERSION) – Smarter Every Day 189

The Incredible Sounds of the Falcon Heavy Launch (BINAURAL AUDIO IMMERSION) – Smarter Every Day 189


Hey, it’s me, Destin, welcome back to Smarter Every Day. So the SpaceX Falcon Heavy test flight Just happened everyone agrees the footage is phenomenal. It was amazing technological wizardry Everyone loves it, but there’s something that is missing when you view it over the internet everyone that’s ever been to an actual space launch will tell you it’s the sound of the event that just Overwhelms your body and that’s kind of lost when you’re looking through a screen, right? So it’s time for me to introduce you to my other youtube channel. It’s called the sound traveler I used binaural 3d audio if you will to transport your body to the location it kind of tricks your mind It’s a acoustic type mental thing going on just trust me it works. Here’s how it works get your headphones put your headphones on it only works if you have headphones Make sure the left headphone is on your left ear make sure the right headphone isn’t your right ear there once you get set up your Calibrated the Vehicle Assembly Building is the largest single story building In the world this is where they assemble the Rockets you are one of only 20 photographers credentialed That’s allowed onto the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building with your headphones on we’re gonna walk through the Vehicle Assembly Building with these photographers Get on some elevators do some catwalk stuff so that your mind gets calibrated to that 3d audio Then walk out to the cameras and get ready for launch there’s three things I want you to listen for number one at the countdown listen to all the shutters firing from the cameras around you you can hear Where they are number two once the rocket lifts off the pad you can no longer hear the cameras. It’s so loud What kind of aircraft is overhead and where it is relative to your mind? Okay, Go enjoy launch and then we’ll get ready for re-entry 15 thank you 10 Thank you there it goes 3 2 1 lift off Lots of noise That sound adds so much for me. That is so incredible Okay, the next part that I absolutely love so the Rockets up up in a way right the two boosters Safely separate they do a little pirouette and they come back without touching each other and they come back in With a re-entry burn the part that I love I mean as an engineer this just tickles all the right parts of my brain the fact that the video feed from both of those boosters Looks like it’s just one booster played on two different screens I love that that means the guidance and control algorithm was so finely tuned But they just nailed it so tip of the hat to the guidance control team that did that Very very impressed the next thing that you missed by not being there because we’re watching it on a screen And we’re hearing the cheering at Hawthorne or the sonic booms as it approaches the pad So here’s how this works according to SpaceX there are three sonic booms per booster And they’re caused by in order number one the engine down there causes the first sonic boom where the legs connect to the booster That’s the second one and the third one’s caused by the grid fins up on top of the booster now There’s three sonic booms per booster We have two boosters that six sonic booms right, now Experience this in 3d with your headphones still see if you can count how many sonic booms you hear And this is what a person hears when they’re down at the Cape when this goes down check it out got them woooow sonic boom’s? 6 sonic booms holy, holy mackerel I didn’t count six I counted ten pump. It dump. It dump. It dump it down I Went back and looked at the waveform the reason you see ten. There’s supposed to be three per booster There’s three with echoes and so the waveform overlays in such a way that it sounds like five. It’s fascinating anyway That is a sound traveller video. I hope you enjoyed this episode of the sound traveler I’m promoting it here on smarter every day in hopes that people will go and subscribe to that when I feature a guest sound traveler I write up this little contract here and I make sure to pay them and I also make sure to promote them and this particular sound traveler was trevor maehlman trevor Helps me with all the eclipse stuff that we’ve done in the past but According to our contract that we wrote. I am now supposed to promote Trevor’s MySpace page so if you want to support Trevor Mullin professional rocket photographer you can I’m just kidding he has a patreon trevor is trying to figure out how to make a career out of professional rocket photography And if you know anything about how intellectual property works it is really really hard to do that everybody wants to offer you promotion When you just need money to eat, so I payed Trevor for this endeavor and I also want to set him up for the long haul and the way to do that is patreon so if you want to support Trevor you’ll notice all the other photographers were more established in their careers Trevor’s not so if you want to support a young man That’s doing awesome things and on top of that. He gives you incredible photographs in exchange for your financial support I’ll leave a link down below. So if you want to pack up your photography gear now with Trevor I’ll let you do that and I’ll leave a link on the screen to subscribe to the sound traveler one humble request To subscribe to that channel because it’s a pet project. I love anyway. I’m Destin you’re getting smarter every day. Have a good one Holy cow Wow Now I’m the first person to see this footage, but I cannot wait for all of you see this this is This is gonna be crazy. This is really gonna be awesome

What Do Stars Sound Like? | Space Time

What Do Stars Sound Like? | Space Time


Thanks to brilliant org for supporting PBS Digital Studios Twinkle twinkle little star how I wonder about your interior structure and dynamical properties Believe it or not we can now map the interiors of stars by Listening to their harmonies as they vibrate with seismic waves Stars are among the best understood objects in astrophysics This is impressive given the fact that they are impossibly distant opaque balls of fiery plasma yet mathematical models emerged in the early 1900’s that describe the balance between the gravitational crush and the outward flow of energy from the fusion reactions in the core these equations of hydrostatic equilibrium Allow us to calculate things like the density and temperature of the core the way energy flows to the surface And even the lifespan of stars these models are largely built around what little we can learn from the light We receive directly from the surface of stars But how do we test these models if we can never see beneath those surfaces? Well we may not see light from beneath the stellar surface But another type of wave travels freely through stars. I’m talking about seismic waves see stars have a dynamical complexity far exceeding the simplest predictions of the equations describing stellar structure they Resonate vast waves reflect around the stellar interior setting up global oscillations natural resonant frequencies that carry information about stars impenetrable interiors Stars ring like bells and although we can’t hear this resonant vibration directly We can see its effect in the changing brightness and the motion of the stellar surface the fast-growing field of astro Seismology uses these oscillations to probe the interiors of the distant stars When we try to understand other stars we always start with our Sun, while the distance does are infinitesimal points of light – even our best telescopes the surface of the Sun can be resolved in incredible detail The effects of seismic activity can be mapped across its surface understanding asteroseismology starts with understanding helioseismology actually back up understanding helioseismology starts with regular old seismology on earth Geo seismology on earth seismic waves are generated by earthquakes and can travel around the planet as longitudinal pressure or P waves Transverse shear or S Waves and surface waves which are a mixture of P And S Waves stars also support P waves and these are true sound waves that echo around their interiors Because stars are fluid rather than solid they don’t support shear waves however they do support two types of gravity waves Now these are not gravitational waves gravity waves result from the restoration of gravitational equilibrium When some material is moved from its preferred depth buoyancy forces try to push it back into place In stars these waves occur below the surface G Waves and on the surface F waves the latter are Closely analogous to ocean surface waves on the earth however It’s the pressure waves the P waves that really dominate in stars like the Sun These acoustic waves are generated by turbulence just below the surface of a star just as seismic waves on earth are created by earthquakes just below the surface in the lithosphere They start as traveling waves that can move throughout the stars in a structure however Just as a single tap con set an entire bell ringing, a single traveling wave feeds its energy into Standing pressure waves that cause the entire star to vibrate These P mode oscillations follow the rules of spherical harmonics Taking the form of regular patterns of density oscillations Throughout the star the distribution of the pan depends on the frequency or the mode much like on the skin of a drum Many modes vibrate at once overlapping in a complex structure of resonance the strongest oscillations in the Sun are in the 2 to 4 mhz range These are the suns 5-minute oscillations, so What does this look like? well for the Sun we can map these oscillations in two ways changes in brightness and changes in velocity brightness of spectral lines in the sun’s atmosphere Can change by around 1 part per million over the course of an oscillation? At the same time gas moves vertically in and out during the same oscillation reaching velocities of 0.1 m/s this can be detected in the Doppler shift of spectral lines and because many different modes overlap the complex overlapping effects of these oscillations are separated using Fourier analysis We’ve spoken in depth about Fourier analysis in our recent episode on understanding the uncertainty principle So I won’t go into too much detail here, in short the many overlapping modes form complex oscillations on the surface of the star But these can be deconstructed into simple sinusoidal oscillations each of which corresponds to an individual mode resonating throughout the star Hélio and asteroseismology are all about determining and modeling the resonant modes within a star See the nature of these modes depends on the internal structure specifically on how the speed of sound Changes throughout the star, which in turn depends on the stratification of temperature density and Composition The internal rotation of the star is also a key factor Helioseismology has allowed us to verify and improve the models of the sun’s internal structure It’s also revealed new things for example that the inner radiative zone rotates almost like a solid ball while the outer convective zone rotates at different speeds depending on latitude this differential rotation Powers the sun’s magnetic field and is also responsible for twisting that magnetic field to drive the sunspot cycle Helioseismology has also allowed us to measure the composition of the core Which tells us how much of the sun’s hydrogen fuel source has already been burned into helium In this way it’s been revealed that our Sun is currently around halfway through, its 10 billion year life span Which is consistent with h dating of the oldest meteorites? observations of the Sun surface are relatively easy seismological studies of distant stars asteroseismology Is much more difficult, they’re too far away to resolve their surfaces So we only see the global effects of their oscillations. The Doppler shifts due to local gas moving are completely washed out however, There is global flickering tiny changes in overall brightness that can allow us to figure out the strongest resonant modes Those modes allow us to determine fundamental properties like radius mass density and surface gravity in red giant stars Asteroseismology has been used to determine the fusion activity in their dying cause Allowing us to learn just how close these stars are to their last flicker But astro seismology really is hard to do to see that faint flickering we have to go to space The Canadian MOST and the French COROT satellites, pioneered this work while KEPLER does asteroseismology? mere as side gig to finding alien planets future planet hunting satellites like TESS and PLATO will continue this work with higher precision and for many more stars Most stellar seismology is focused on learning about the average global structure of stars But at least for the Sun, It’s possible to learn about current local events that are hidden from our view For example we can map the currents of plasma and density fluctuations as they shift beneath the solar surface In helioseismic holography, The visible wave field so the distribution of Doppler velocities across the visible surface of the Sun is used to infer the current state of the standing waves throughout the Sun, that includes the far side of the Sun In fact Helioseismic calligraphy is capable of detecting sunspots long before the Sun rotates them into visibility and this can give us advanced warning of potentially dangerous solar activity stars seen There harmony ISM a hidden in the flickering of their light and in the subtle in/out of their services Woven into that music is knowledge of their mysterious depths and of their pasts and futures We’re only now learning to decipher the complex overlay of tones in stellar oscillations. We’re learning the lyrics Twinkle twinkle little star and in doing so you give up your secrets because the science of asteroseismology Can now translate the messages of stars twinkling at us from across space-time. A big Thanks to brilliant.org for supporting PBS Digital Studios Now listening to me Yap on about space and physics may be fun and all But that’s not enough if you really want to learn this stuff To learn you need to do to really gain intuition about our often very unintuitive universe You need to start solving problems in physics math and astronomy that’s why brilliant.org superbly crafted courses May be the perfect next step for you They built problem-based courses on a huge range of subjects including a lot of math but also physics astronomy and computer science in no time at all you’ll be coding gravity simulations in Python and calculating the radiation emitted by black holes To support space-time and learn more about brilliant go to brilliant.org/spacetime and Sign up for free and also the first 200 people that go to that link will get 20% off the annual premium subscription Hey guys, so we get an enormous amount of help from this little thing called Patreon where you can throw in a few bucks every month to help out check it out If you haven’t we provide some sweet rewards for your generosity the link is in the description and a big big Thanks to those of you who already Contribute and today especially to fires our sword for your exceptionally generous Big Bang level contribution You are keeping the studio lights on and the camera running seriously Thanks, because space time the podcast just wouldn’t be as cool so before the break We didn’t episode on what would happen to the earth if we were hit by a gamma-ray burst beam You guys had a lot to say about it Demetria liran gave a shout-out to the excellent kurzgesagt episode on the gamma ray burst apocalypse he points out that they say the Earth’s surface would be incinerated by such an event So the results actually depend very much on the distance to the bursts a DOB within a few light-years Would be directly devastating to life No need to wait for the follow-up ozone problems, but the chances of a GRB going off that close are exactly zero Because there are no stars that would possibly explode that way for hundreds of light years Now it may. Eventually happen as the Sun wanders the galaxy and encounters new neighbors But it’s still spectacularly unlikely. Dimitri Also asks, whether being in a different spot in our orbit can save us from a gamma-ray burst Well the answer is no Nowhere is safe Geo beams from exploding stars are estimated to have jets with conical opening angles of between 2 and 20 degrees But even if a super focused one degree gamma-ray burst hit us from a single light year away That jet would have diverged to something like 10 times the size of our solar system by the time it reaches us it would hit the whole solar system equally Luna asks whether building underground cities would help against a gamma-ray burst, well I’m sure they’d protect us against the follow-up effects of increased UV But so does hats and sunscreen however, none of these would protect the rest of the biosphere on which we’re still rather dependent Felix scneider asks how electromagnetic radiation can be focused by a magnetic field Now this is an excellent question As Felix realizes light is not electrically charged and so isn’t affected by em fields in fact the magnetic field of a gamma-ray burst focuses charged particles electrons and the nuclei of the exploding star those particles can then fire photons in our direction in a couple of different possible ways One is synchrotron radiation The charged particles spiral around the axial magnetic fields and emit photons as they do The other is inverse Compton scattering particles in the jet bumpy two existing photons perhaps synchrotron photons and scatter them to higher energies and Preferentially in the direction of the flow, in both cases photons are emitted in different directions but an effect called relativistic beaming massively amplifies our perceived brightness of the light emitted in the same direction as the near light speed charged particles of the jet Upcycled electronics suggest that I spoil the Ordovician Silurian extinction script from PBS eons Ridiculous if I’d stolen it from eons it would have been really good check it out PBS eons It’s really good

Music at Central Piedmont

Music at Central Piedmont


I’m Craig Bove, I’m chair of the music department
in the Performing Arts and Interior Design Division here at CPCC. I’ve been teaching here since 1998. The music department serves the student population
here in three ways. One, the music department serves the music
major in preparing them to transfer to a four-year institution. Our AFA degree parallels what happens at the
four-year school – the first two years that the student is in the program. The student takes a series of courses in theory,
music history, applied study, piano and ensembles. Those course all transfer to the four-year
institution upon their successful graduation. The music department also shares the college’s
commitment to Gen Ed study and finally we also serve students who just want to take
a course in learning how to sing, learning how to play an instrument or just learning
how to read music. Hi, my name is Ty Xiong, I am currently at
Central Piedmont Community College and I am trying to pursue a music degree. I chose CPCC really because right after high
school I did have an interest with music. I didn’t have any classical knowledge, but
I thought CPCC would be a great start for a person at a level where I was at. I didn’t start until I was 19, but I try for
CPCC so when I go to university, I’ll be more confident and more knowledgable of what’s
going to be ahead of me. If somebody was on the fence to come to Central
Piedmont, I highly recommend going there. I’m not just saying that just to say that. The teachers, the professors here, they have
master’s degrees, they have doctoral degrees, who all came from other schools and they came
here to teach us. It doesn’t matter if we have a high interest
of music or a low interest. Maybe we just want to do it for fun or if
we want to make it serious. They’re here to really bring out that musician out of us and it’s really fun and it’s really great (Opera music) I do this because I believe it’s, in a modest
way, it’s being part of something that’s larger than yourself. You’re transmitting part of your culture,
the language, the musical language to another generation and in a way, it’s ephemerally
rather profound and at the same time, it’s very mundanely human. It’s passing along who we are.

Learn English: Does the C sound like S or K?

Learn English: Does the C sound like S or K?


Hello. I’m not sick of jumping up and down.
Are you? Let’s do more. My name is Ronnie. I’m going to teach you something that I’m
really quite excited to teach you. I’m a little bit insane. That’s fine. For years, people
have been asking me, “Ronnie, how do you know — when you see the written letter C —
whether you say it like an S or like a K?” “I don’t know. I have no idea.” So then, I thought
about when I was a child. How did I know that, for example, my country Canada is “k” and not
“sanada”? Probably because I hear people saying “kanada” and not “sanada”. So I had
the advantage of listening to people speak English around me. You don’t have that advantage
maybe. So I have found it, the answer to this question that has been plaguing me for years.
I’m going to share it with you. Please do not get as excited as I am right now. Do not
jump. I dare you not to jump. So check it out, C pronunciation.
Here we go. Sometimes, it sounds like an S. But sometimes,
it sounds like a K. How the hell are you going to know what to do? This is the game. So we
have a beautiful list of vowels. So we have A, E, I, 0, U, and sometimes Y is a vowel.
If your word has a C and an A for example, very basic, “cat”. If your word has a C and an E
— for example “center”, “cell”, or “cereal”, it’s going to sound like an S. If your C word
has C and A, it’s a K. If your C word has an I, it’s going to sound like an S. If it’s
followed by an O, it’s a K. U, it’s a K. And Y, it’s an S. So let’s
check out our new theory. If your word has C followed by the vowel E
like this, this sound is actually going to be S, not “ch” or “k”. We don’t say “kenter”,
we say “center”. Why? Don’t ask me. I’ve just figured out how. And this word, “cell”, like
a cell phone, is actually an S. So it’s also a homophone, meaning the word “sell” as in
“to sell something to someone” has the exact same pronunciation as your cell phone. So you can
sell your cell phone. Bad joke. You love it. So “center”, because we have CE, “cell” because
we have CE, and delicious morning food, “cereal”, because it has CE is always
going to sound like an S. Yay. Next one. C plus I — for example, the word
“city” — because it’s CI, it’s going to sound like “city”. We have to be really careful
again between the S and the SH. It is a sound “s”, not “ch”. You don’t want to say
“shitty”; you want to say “city”. This word, “cigar”, which is a big, fat cigarette
— “cigarette”. Hello. It’s an S word. — is going to follow the S rule. Oh, “cilantro”. Do
you know what “cilantro” is? It’s a really, really delicious herb. It is common in Mexico and
in Thailand and in India. Delicious. Cilantro is an herb, and it makes an S sound
because it’s CI together. Cool. Next one. These words have the CY. Now, like
I said, sometimes, Y is a vowel. Now, before I get all crazy and freak out because this
is amazing, we must understand one thing in English all the time. There are rules, and
there are patterns or methods, but there are also exceptions to these rules and patterns
and methods. So this is not 100 percent for all of the vowels and all of the time. But it’s a really,
really good guideline to help you figure it out. So this word is “cyber”. If you’re watching
me right now, we’re in cyberspace. It’s not “kyber”; it’s “cyber”. And the next one is
“cynical”. Do you know what “cynical” means? “Cynical” basically means that you think negatively
about everything. So if you’re cynical like I am, you think, “I’m never going to figure
out the difference between S and K. Oh, I just did.” So don’t be cynical.
You can do it. And the next one is — if you play the drums,
the hi-hat is a “cymbal”. But you go, “Hey, Ronnie. You spelled that wrong. It’s s-y-m-b-a-l.”
It’s not like that. It’s actually c-y-m-b-a-l. Do you play the drums? Do you want
to start a band? Go to it. “Cymbal”. So this is the rule. C plus E,
C plus I, C plus Y — S sound. Let’s try out the theory of the K, shall we?
So K plus A, K plus O, and K plus U — K plus A, “Meow”, “cat”. We can’t say “sat”. We can’t
say “kat”. It’s a cat. This word is a chicken amongst other things. It is the word “cock”. So
the word “cock” is not “sock” because that’s the thing you wear on your foot. Please don’t
put your cock on your foot. And it’s a K sound. If you want to take a taxi, it’s also called
a “cab”. Not a “sab”, a “cab”. This is a CA, CA. We have another example of the CO — like
“cock” — “coast”. The coast is the area where the land meets the ocean
or the sea, the coastline. The next word is the CU — “See you later!”
— a CU combination, and this word is “cube”. “Cube” is a three-dimensional — I should
be an artist. I’ve decided. I’ve never been able to do a cube. A “cube” is a three-dimensional
square. And the last one, “cute”. It’s not “sute”; it’s “cute”. So all you have to do is look at the vowels.
After the C, if the vowel is E, I, and Y, it’s going to sound like an S.
After the C, if we’ve A, O, and U, your word is going
to sound like a K. Let’s see if you got this. Test time. This
word — I’m not going to tell you how to say the word, but let’s look at our rules. So
the very first one is — we’ve a C plus an I. C plus I. Good. C plus I is S. Uh-ho. We
have another C. What are we going to do with the other C? Let’s check. We have a C plus a
U. C plus U — K. So by our theory, we should say this word “circus”. Yes. That is right.
Lots of elephants and clowns. Go to the circus. You can now say it. If you have any questions about this, please
comment. Please ask me questions. Please visit the website, www.engvid.com.
Bye-bye.

The Try Guys Plant 20 Million Trees (PSA Music Video)

The Try Guys Plant 20 Million Trees (PSA Music Video)


– Hi, we’re the Try Guys. – We’re teaming up with
Mr. Beast, Mark Rober, and the Arbor Day Foundation to plant 20 million trees. – [Ned] Click the blue
button to donate now and 100 percent of the
money will go to Team Trees. Or go to TeamTrees.org to learn more. – But we know that donating takes time. So we are here today to convince you in the dumbest way that
only we could ever imagine. – We proudly present, plant 20 million trees, a Try Guys PSA. – Punch, punch, punch. Kick, punch, punch. Kick, kick, curb stomp. – Ned, what are you doing? Leave that tree alone! – Trees are stupid. Who needs them? (grunts) – Ned, how can you say that? We love our trees! We gotta protect the
only planet that we got! – I don’t love anything. I’m a tough guy. Just like my dad. – [Keith] Oh, really? – What? (gasps) (upbeat music) – [Both] Whoa! – Hey, kids. – [Both] Brock Treeman! – What? Brock Treeman? He’s in sixth grade! – It’s me. Brock Treeman. And I’m here to tell you that planting trees is cool. – No way. Trees are lame. Kick, kick, punch. – How are we gonna get through to him? – Oh, I think I have an idea. Hit it, Brock Treeman! – Let’s try trees, guys. ♪ Here we go ♪ ♪ Oh, here we go ♪ ♪ We gotta help our Mr. Beast ♪ ♪ We gotta plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Wait, what? ♪ ♪ The earth is dying, not enough trees ♪ ♪ So we’re here to say let’s
plant some more trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ The earth is crying,
let’s dry up those tears ♪ ♪ Deciduous and otherwise,
every kind of tree ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ This planet is rad, it’s all we got ♪ ♪ Don’t believe? ♪ ♪ Ask my friend, the rock ♪ ♪ Do you smell what he is cooking? ♪ – Uh, no, that’s a rock. ♪ Trees are never going out of style ♪ ♪ Trees are evergreen ♪ ♪ Let’s plant a mile ♪ ♪ Spruce, pine, maple, palm ♪ ♪ So many trees, I gotta call my mom ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪
– Instant energy. ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ We’re not trying to be sappy ♪ ♪ Planting trees makes
Mother Earth happy ♪ ♪ The planet’s running
for it’s life so much ♪ ♪ You might as well call it Forrest Gump ♪ ♪ Yeah, we reppin’ Team Trees ♪ ♪ Donations we need ♪ ♪ Don’t believe me? ♪ ♪ Ask my friend B-rock ♪ ♪ Do you smell what he’s cookin’? ♪ – I still think trees don’t matter ♪ Some trees are growers,
well I’m a shower ♪ ♪ You how to save the environment ♪ ♪ Mr. Beast and Mark
Rober, sitting in a tree ♪ ♪ S-A-V-I-N-G ♪ ♪ Trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪
– Don’t want em don’t need em ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ – I’m busy. ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ – [Ned] Don’t like em. ♪ Trees, don’t want em in my life ♪ ♪ Just like my dad, just like my dad ♪ ♪ Just, just, just, just like my dad ♪ ♪ Don’t want em in my life ♪ ♪ Give me a bulldozer any day ♪ ♪ Destroying the
rainforest, that’s my play ♪ ♪ Trees are responsible
for creating oxygen ♪ ♪ That’s the air you breathe ♪
– Wait, really? ♪ The feeling of community
pride created by trees ♪ ♪ Can help reduce crime ♪
– Wait, really? ♪ We need your donation ♪ ♪ It’s the only chance we got ♪ ♪ Don’t believe me? ♪ ♪ Ask my friend, Will Smith ♪ – I think we all smell what he’s cooking. ♪ Maybe I was wrong ♪ ♪ Maybe I’m the asshole ♪ ♪ What if trees are cool? ♪ Maybe I’m my dad. ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪
– Here we go. ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪
– Donations we need ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ – Planting trees is important. We gotta start a dialogue. Maybe you didn’t like our song. But that’s okay. As long as you out there love trees. TeamTrees.org. Make your donation today. And until then, all I gots to say is ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ – So kid, what do you think now? – You know, planting
trees is pretty important. And cool. – TeamTrees.org. – [All] Yeah! (laughs) – That was fun. – Once again, you can go to TeamTrees.org. If you donate one dollar, we’ll plant one tree. And together, we’ll all
plant 20 million trees. – Brock Treeman. – Brock Treeman. – You can be Brock Treeman, too. ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ ♪ Plant 20 million trees ♪ – You’re barking up the wrong tree. – Whoa.

How I memorize piano music | Jocelyn Swigger | TEDxGettysburgCollege

How I memorize piano music | Jocelyn Swigger | TEDxGettysburgCollege


Translator: Alice Spangaro
Reviewer: Queenie Lee Jocelyn Swigger: Let’s talk about
how you translate something like that into something like this. (Music: Chopin “Étude Op. 25,
No. 2, in F minor”) The two questions that I get asked
most often after I play a concert are “How do you make
your fingers move so fast?” and “How do you remember
all those notes?” There’s a short answer: lots and lots and lots and lots … … of practice. And after a hard day
practicing hard piano music, I actually really like to unwind
by listening to science. This is partly
because I’m really fascinated by the actual scientific discoveries, and I love podcasts,
[TEDx] Talks, chatting with friends. But I think it’s also because I really
relate to the process of finding those scientific
discoveries out. So, as I understand it, that process – that process includes slogging
through lots of short-term details for the sake of a long-term goal
that might not even be possible; experimenting to see what works
and what doesn’t work; analyzing complicated and often nonverbal
architectures of ideas; handling simultaneous
conflicting concepts at the same time; and then on a really, really good day, you get to discover creative,
fun, intuitive epiphanies. This sounds to me
just like practicing the piano. So just like science, practicing the piano has its fun,
creative, and intuitive moments, but most of what I’m doing
is analytical problem-solving and repetition. I have to figure out how to do something, and then I have to repeat it enough that I can trust that I’ll play it
the way I wanted to. So the first step
is parsing a nonverbal code, and I want to take just a minute to go through how to read music
very, very quickly. Every note on the keyboard
has its own spot on the staff, (Plays musical scale) and its own letter name: (Plays musical scale) A, B, C, D, E, F, G. The notes go up, (Plays) they go down, (Plays) and they stay the same. (Plays) We mark timed silence
with squiggles and squares. We read from left to right
just like reading English. Mostly the right hand plays the top line,
the left hand plays the bottom line, and stuff occupying the same vertical
happens at the same time. (Plays piano score) A beam makes things go twice as fast. (Plays piano score) And twice as fast. (Plays piano score) And twice as fast. (Plays piano score) So hopefully with that,
you can see that this is fairly easy. (Plays piano score) And this is a little more difficult, (Plays piano score) and this might kill you. (Laughter) (Plays piano score) So how do you memorize
something like that? Well, let’s look at the process. When I’m memorizing, learning music, I’m analytically problem-solving
from four different directions, and those are the four different kinds
of memory that I need: how something looks, how it sounds,
how it feels, and how it’s shaped. So first is visual memory. For me, the way the notes look
on the page is actually not that helpful. I don’t have a full-on
photographic memory, and I’m very jealous of those who do. So I can’t remember
all the little dots on the page, but actually, how my hands look
on the keyboard is a huge part of figuring out
how to do a jump like this. (Plays piano score part) So that visual moment is very important
in the learning process. Next is the aural memory, and this usually puts itself in place while I’m figuring out
how I want something to sound. So I have to make decisions like: Do I want to listen to the top part
of the right hand when I play this? (Plays, stressing on right-hand top part) Or do I want to listen
to the thumb of the right hand? (Plays, stressing on right thumb) By the time I’ve really work that out,
the tune gets stuck in my head, and that means that the aural memory
is pretty much in place. Next is the physical memory, and this is really where I have
to get into my analytical problem-solving, and I have a real incentive
to solve my problems and figure out how to do things, because if I don’t … Well, first of all, it can sound terrible
but it also can really hurt, a lot! So I want to try and figure out
how to do things. And this involves
a lot of problem-solving, and I want to show you
some of those problems. So when I do this left-hand pattern, if I try to stretch between my pinky
and my ring finger to play this, (Plays left hand) it sounds terrible,
and it’s really hard, and it hurts, and life is miserable
and I’d rather go watching Netflix. (Laughter) But it actually works if I use a position
that I call the one-eared llama, like, “Hello, I am a two-eared llama!”
“Hello, I am a one-eared llama!” (Laughter) because the distance between the ear
and the nose of the llama is an easier way to play this pattern. Sometimes I’m trying to teach one hand
how to do two things at once. In this one, the left hand is playing
just a little boom shot pattern. (Plays left hand) The bottom part of my right hand
is playing this simple little chord and then the top part of my right hand is playing this really evil,
difficult climb. (Plays right-hand chromatic scale) So I’m doing that
at the same time is this. (Plays full right hand) That’s only possible
if my thumb isn’t collapsed. So if my thumb is collapsed,
I can’t do it. But if I make sure that my thumb
is really supported – see, collapsed, supported – it becomes possible. And actually, it turns out
that Chopin’s hand has this beautifully
supported thumb joint, there. This is from a marble in Budapest. Sometimes I’m trying to teach
one hand to play one rhythm and the other hand to play another. Can I have everybody please –
we’ll do some audience participation – could you all please do:
stomp, clap-clap, and keep that going? Audience: (Stomp, clap-clap rhythm)
JS: Great! Keep going! (Accompanies stomp, clap-clap rhythm) Thank you! So now could you please do:
stomp-clap, stomp-clap, Ready? And go! Audience: (Stomp-clap, stomp-clap rhythm) (Accompanies stomp-clap rhythm) Great! So now stomp and then clap
really, really quietly and decide if you want to do
two or three at the same time. So stomp, stomp, stomp, stomp,
stomp, stomp, listen to both. (Accompanies rhythm) Thank you! So I’m doing
both of those at the same time. Sometimes I have to think about two and three at the same time
in a different way. So this rhythmic gesture
is in groups of three. (Plays music score) Can you hear that? (Plays)
That’s one-two-three, one-two-three … But the actual physical gesture
is in two-note groups. It’s going (Plays) up and up
and up and up and up and up. So when I play something like this, I’m sort of experiencing
two and three at the same time. (Plays piano score) So by the time I’ve got all that in place,
the muscle memory is there. But muscle memory is a fickle friend because your body
doesn’t always feel the same. Especially when you feel nervous
your body feels totally different, we already heard about that today. So you have to have a backup system, and this is where we come to
how it’s shaped: the analytical memory. So what I have to do when I’m dealing
with my analytical memory is I have to find patterns, I have to understand the grammar,
and I have to chunk my information. So let me show you how this works. If I were to tell all of you
that on Monday you’re going to be required
to stand up on this stage and recite from memory
this sequence of letters, I think you’ll feel
like I ruined your weekend. But maybe if you’re game
and you decide to do it, so you might look to see
if anything jumps out at you. And maybe if you’re a Scrabble player
you might see that WXIJ, and you might say,
“Oh, look, that happens twice!” Then you might look at what happens
right before it and right after it, and you might see that there’s actually
a string that repeats itself. When something happens twice
you only have to learn it once. So now we have less information
we have to deal with, but you’re still kind of depressed
about this task, I think. But you might go back in
and look for patterns. And you might see, well, TU –
that’s an alphabetical order pair. OK. WX, that’s an alphabetical order pair,
and they’re all alphabetical order pairs. Maybe that’s interesting. So then at this point, you might
start moving them around to see if you can find
some kind of pattern that makes some kind of sense out of this. Well, if you look at the red letters you’re probably not going to feel
like you’ve really gotten very far. But if you look at the black letters you might start seeing some sort
of pattern that might be helpful, if you go down (Laughter)
like in the first line. Then we might actually put this in order, and then if we put back in
the thing we took out, maybe this pattern doesn’t seem
quite as daunting. This is the kind of thing
that I have to deal with when I’m trying to figure this out. So, if I play something like this, (Plays piano score) that’s a lot of notes. But it happens that the stuff
in the blue boxes … (Plays notes inside blue boxes)
… is the same, just a little higher. And if I collapse them all down
to their closest position, I can really think
of all of those as being this chord, and I have a name for it,
which is C major. So I’m thinking
of one piece of information instead of all of those pieces
of information. Sometimes there’s a little
more noise thrown in. Here, this is a Chopin
nicknamed “Wrong Note” étude (Plays piano score) So he kind of wrote in these wrong notes that then resolved to the right notes. And if you try to memorize
the information of the wrong notes, that’s really hard to figure out, just like our alphabetical ordered pairs
and Twinkle Twinkle Little Star. But if you accept that the wrong notes are just kind of these mean
downstairs neighbors and you think about this … … this I can actually think of
as being one chord, (Plays chord) which is E minor. So I can think of it that way. So then, what do you do
when you see something like this? Well, first you cry, (Laughter) and then you start looking for patterns. So you might see that it goes (Plays piano score)
in and out and in and out and in and out and in and out. So let’s look at
that very first little in-out pair. (Plays piano score) So the top notes of the right hand
are B, F, D, G#, and it so happens that those are also
the top notes of the left hand. (Plays) B, F, D, G#. The bottom notes of the right hand
are also the same as the bottom notes of the left hand, and actually, just this, (Plays) those notes together
are B, F, D, G#. (Plays) So actually, we can think about
all of this as being this chord, (Plays as chord) which is easier to think about than this. (Plays in-out pattern) So I won’t walk you through all of this, but the next red box
is exactly the same thing, (Plays chord) a step lower, and then it changes and changes
and changes. (Plays chords) So instead of thinking about
all of this information, (Plays in-out pattern) I can think about …
(Plays sequence of single notes) which is much easier
for my poor brain to handle. So, what I just showed you is between the first blue arrow
and the second blue arrow. I won’t walk you through it, but trust me that between
the second and third blue arrow is the same thing a step down, and then at the third blue arrow,
it’s the same thing as step down again. So it’s very much worth my while to be good at starting
at the first blue arrow, and also good at starting
at the second blue arrow, and also good at starting
at the third blue arrow. So that if panic strikes, or something happens
in between two arrows, I can jump to the next place,
so that’s building myself a safety net. So once I’ve chunked my information, then I’m ready to think about
the larger structure. And it so happens that a lot
of classical music is an A-B-A form. It’s just shaped like a sandwich. You have a thing
and then a different thing and then a thing
that’s similar to the first thing. Once I have like overall structure,
I make a theory map. I actually write out all the chords;
I make my students do this too. And then once I have my theory map,
I have to memorize the map, and one way that I do this
is by playing the music while saying the name of the chord. So I might do something like A minor,
D minor, A minor, (Plays piano score) E7 … A … E. And if I want to emphasize the chords’ or the harmonies’
relationships to each other, rather than their individual identities,
I can throw numbers at them. So I can say: 1, 4, 1, (Plays piano score) 5, 1, 5 … … 1. So by the time I figured out
how to do that, all four of my memories are in place – how it looks, how it sounds,
how it feels, and how it’s shaped. And here’s the really cool thing: when I say that the memory
is in an actual place, it’s an actual place! With every repetition that I have to do,
my brain is building myelin, which is the unbelievable protein that wraps itself around neural pathways
and makes them go faster. So I’ll leave you with a quotation from somebody who had a lot
of musical myelin and a question. Einstein said, “If I were not a physicist,
I would probably be a musician. I think in music.
I live my daydreams in music. Our next generation of scientists
has a lot of problems to solve. Here’s my question. What kind of discoveries might
they come up with if we make sure that they know how to think in music?” Thank you. (Applause)

The world’s ugliest music | Scott Rickard | TEDxMIA

The world’s ugliest music | Scott Rickard | TEDxMIA


So what makes a piece of music beautiful? Well, most musicologists would argue that repetition is a key aspect of beauty, the idea that we take a melody,
a motif, a musical idea, we repeat it, we set up
the expectation for repetition, and then we either realize it
or we break the repetition. And that’s a key component of beauty. So if repetition and patterns
are key to beauty, then what would the absence
of patterns sound like, if we wrote a piece of music
that had no repetition whatsoever in it? That’s actually an interesting
mathematical question. Is it possible to write a piece of music
that has no repetition whatsoever? It’s not random — random is easy. Repetition-free, it turns
out, is extremely difficult, and the only reason
that we can actually do it is because of a man
who was hunting for submarines. It turns out, a guy who was trying
to develop the world’s perfect sonar ping solved the problem of writing
pattern-free music. And that’s what the topic
of the talk is today. So, recall that in sonar, you have a ship that sends
out some sound in the water, and it listens for it — an echo. The sound goes down, it echoes
back, it goes down, echoes back. The time it takes the sound to come back
tells you how far away it is: if it comes at a higher pitch, it’s because the thing
is moving toward you; if it comes back at a lower pitch,
it’s moving away from you. So how would you design
a perfect sonar ping? Well, in the 1960s, a guy
by the name of John Costas was working on the Navy’s extremely
expensive sonar system. It wasn’t working, because the ping
they were using was inappropriate. It was a ping much
like the following here. You can think of this as the notes
and this is time. (Piano notes play high to low) So that was the sonar ping
they were using, a down chirp. It turns out that’s a really bad ping. Why? Because it looks
like shifts of itself. The relationship between the first
two notes is the same as the second two, and so forth. So he designed a different
kind of sonar ping, one that looks random. These look like a random pattern
of dots, but they’re not. If you look very carefully, you may notice that, in fact,
the relationship between each pair of dots is distinct. Nothing is ever repeated. The first two notes
and every other pair of notes have a different relationship. So the fact that we know
about these patterns is unusual. John Costas is the inventor
of these patterns. This is a picture from 2006,
shortly before his death. He was the sonar engineer
working for the Navy. He was thinking about these patterns, and he was, by hand, able to come
up with them to size 12 — 12 by 12. He couldn’t go any further
and thought maybe they don’t exist in any size bigger than 12. So he wrote a letter
to the mathematician in the middle, a young mathematician in California
at the time, Solomon Golomb. It turns out that Solomon Golomb was one of the most gifted discrete
mathematicians of our time. John asked Solomon if he could tell him
the right reference to where these patterns were. There was no reference. Nobody had ever thought
about a repetition, a pattern-free structure before. So, Solomon Golomb spent the summer
thinking about the problem. And he relied on the mathematics
of this gentleman here, Évariste Galois. Now, Galois is a very
famous mathematician. He’s famous because he invented
a whole branch of mathematics which bears his name,
called Galois field theory. It’s the mathematics of prime numbers. He’s also famous
because of the way that he died. The story is that he stood up
for the honor of a young woman. He was challenged to a duel,
and he accepted. And shortly before the duel occurred, he wrote down all
of his mathematical ideas, sent letters to all of his friends,
saying “Please, please” — this was 200 years ago — “Please, please, see that these things
get published eventually.” He then fought the duel,
was shot and died at age 20. The mathematics that runs
your cell phones, the internet, that allows us to communicate, DVDs, all comes from the mind
of Évariste Galois, a mathematician who died 20 years young. When you talk about
the legacy that you leave … Of course, he couldn’t have
even anticipated the way that his mathematics
would be used. Thankfully, his mathematics
was eventually published. Solomon Golomb realized that that was
exactly the mathematics needed to solve the problem of creating
a pattern-free structure. So he sent a letter back to John saying, “It turns out you can generate
these patterns using prime number theory.” And John went about and solved
the sonar problem for the Navy. So what do these patterns look like again? Here’s a pattern here. This is an 88-by-88-sized Costas array. It’s generated in a very simple way. Elementary school mathematics
is sufficient to solve this problem. It’s generated by repeatedly
multiplying by the number three: 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, 243 … When I get to a number that’s larger
than 89 which happens to be prime, I keep taking 89s away
until I get back below. And this will eventually fill
the entire grid, 88 by 88. There happen to be 88 notes on the piano. So today, we are going to have
the world premiere of the world’s first
pattern-free piano sonata. So, back to the question of music: What makes music beautiful? Let’s think about one of the most
beautiful pieces ever written, Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony
and the famous “da na na na!” motif. That motif occurs hundreds
of times in the symphony — hundreds of times
in the first movement alone and also in all the other
movements as well. So the setting up of this repetition
is so important for beauty. If we think about random music
as being just random notes here, and over here, somehow, Beethoven’s Fifth
in some kind of pattern, if we wrote completely pattern-free music, it would be way out on the tail. In fact, the end of the tail of music
would be these pattern-free structures. This music that we saw before,
those stars on the grid, is far, far, far from random. It’s perfectly pattern-free. It turns out that musicologists — a famous composer by the name
of Arnold Schoenberg — thought of this in the 1930s,
’40s and ’50s. His goal as a composer was to write music that would free music
from tonal structure. He called it the “emancipation
of the dissonance.” He created these structures
called “tone rows.” This is a tone row there. It sounds a lot like a Costas array. Unfortunately, he died 10 years
before Costas solved the problem of how you can mathematically
create these structures. Today, we’re going to hear the world
premiere of the perfect ping. This is an 88-by-88-sized Costas array, mapped to notes on the piano, played using a structure called
a Golomb ruler for the rhythm, which means the starting
time of each pair of notes is distinct as well. This is mathematically almost impossible. Actually, computationally,
it would be impossible to create. Because of the mathematics
that was developed 200 years ago, through another mathematician
recently and an engineer, we were able to actually compose
this, or construct this, using multiplication by the number three. The point when you hear this music is not that it’s supposed to be beautiful. This is supposed to be
the world’s ugliest piece of music. In fact, it’s music
that only a mathematician could write. (Laughter) When you’re listening to this
piece of music, I implore you: try and find some repetition. Try and find something that you enjoy, and then revel in the fact
that you won’t find it. (Laughter) So without further ado, Michael Linville, the [Dean] of Chamber Music
at the New World Symphony, will perform the world premiere
of the perfect ping. (Music) (Music ends) (Scott Rickard, off-screen) Thank you. (Applause)

TEDxSydney – Richard Gill – The Value of Music Education

TEDxSydney – Richard Gill – The Value of Music Education


Translator: Jerson Partible
Reviewer: Denise RQ Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. I’ve asked if the lights
could be lifted for this session, and David Glover agreed. And the reason, thank you very much,
is I like to see the whites of your eyes. (Laughter) And I like to see you as my class. I hope you’ve all made the connection that music is an incredibly important part
of what has been happening today. We started with a didjeribone, an improvisation
on this extraordinary instrument. We then saw a film
that had been put together showing how TEDx was setup,
and music, actually, made that film work. Without music, that film
would have been a very different film. We then saw the rabbit, that had music; – a tragic end for the rabbit,
but nonetheless, music – (Laughter) and then we have had “Synergy”, whose piece, their percussion piece,
was an improvised piece. I spoke to Bree afterwards and I said,
“That’s clearly improvised,” and she said, “Yes, we work
on a particular pattern. We take that pattern, and every time we perform
that piece, we do it differently.” Then, we had a string quartet, which included amplified sounds
with improvisation. Structures upon which other structures
had been imposed. This is the creative process. This is the process
which starts with an idea which comes from the imagination,
the musical imagination. And when the musical imagination
is ignited in a group circumstance, we have the most extraordinary power
to change lives with music, and to involve people in music. And it should start
with very, very, very young children not teenagers. Not that — you can’t start– I’ve taught teenagers who had their first experience
with music as teenagers. But my view is
that all of that improvisation, all of that creativity you saw
on the stage today, is the right of every child, no matter where and no matter
what the circumstance. Every child, I believe, should have access
to properly taught music in the hands
of a properly taught teacher. (Applause) And it can start in the simplest way. Music is an oral art. And when I talk about music, I define it as “sound, organized in some way, passing through time.” With children, we begin with imitation, the most powerful way of teaching. And if you don’t mind
becoming three-year-olds just for a minute
– I promise you, a minute – I will make my point. I’m going to clap a pattern,
I want you to clap it back. (clapping) (Audience clapping) You’re clearly not three. (Laughter) Here’s another one. (Clapping sequence) (Audience claps sequence) What you notice is you accelerate,
you get louder, and you don’t actually do
the pattern properly (Laughter) which means you are educable,
you can be taught. (Laughter) When you do that with children, what you’re doing is you’re engaging them in their first oral experience. They need to listen. And as a result of the listening,
they repeat, and it requires focus. When this happens, and we take
a very simple nursery rhyme, and we say, with children, we go, (singing) “Humpty Dumpty sat on the wall. Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.” We do this little pattern, I frequently say to the little children,
very young children, “Who can do a different pattern?” Child one puts a hand up and goes (singing same pattern)
“Humpty Dumpty sat on the wall …” I said, “Thank you very much.”
Who can do a different pattern?” (singing same pattern)
“Humpty Dumpty sat on the wall …” (Laughter) And then, the next child will say,
“When will this be over?” (Laughter) All teaching is an act of faith. And with children,
the idea that repetition and putting it in the circumstance
of offering ideas is vital. Music is important
for the following reasons: it is abstract, it doesn’t mean
anything outside itself. When we play a sound,
you can interpret that sound as you wish. I’m going to go to the TEDx Steinway. (Laughter) And it is a Steinway.
I’ve sampled [David’s] Steinway. I’m going to play some sounds.
(playing piano) Those sounds are abstract.
They mean nothing other than themselves. If I then say, “I’m going to play
a composition, and it’s called something. I want you to imagine
what this composition might be called.” (Playing a short tune) Does anyone have an idea
what that composition might be called? Probably “Highly forgettable”. (Laughter) But, in each person, that sort of music, any music,
will evoke a different response. Music does not describe.
Music does not narrate. Music does not tell stories. Music evokes. Music suggests, music implies, and music opens up the mind
of a child in an extraordinary way. And I want to give you some ideas
on that – back to the Steinway. These three pieces deal with night. (playing “Claire de Lune” by Debussy) “Claire de Lune” of Debussy. (playing “A Little Night Music” by Mozart) “A Little Night Music” of Mozart. (playing “Moonlight Sonata” by Beethoven) “Moonlight Sonata” of Beethoven. They have nothing to do
with night whatsoever. (Laughter) The title is simply a way in. But this abstraction about music
is what offers a child the chance to move into
a really special world of thinking. And we get children, therefore,
to try to understand that the most important thing about music is to make your own music. Children must make their own music. It is not they shouldn’t reproduce music, but they must make their own, and they make it best through singing. That every child,
given normal circumstances, has the capacity to sing;
you, all, have the capacity to sing. Shall we test that? (Laughter) Yes, we shall. (Laughter) I will give you a little phrase
and I’d like you to sing it back. La-la-la-la-la, la-la, la, la. (Audience) La-la-la-la-la, la-la, la, la. Richard Gill: La, la-la, la-la, la-la. (Audience) La, la-la, la-la, la-la. RG: Pitch better than rhythm for you lot. (Laughter) Very good. Now what about if I give you
a little pattern here, like, foot, hand, foot, hand. Just try that, foot, hand,
and then, sing this back, la-la, la-la, la, la, la. (Audience) La-la, la-la, la, la, la. RG: La, la-la, la-la, la-la. (Audience) La, la-la, la-la, la-la. RG: Now sing the whole thing
from the beginning. Go. (Audience) La-la, la-la, la, la, la.
La, la-la, la-la, la-la. RG: Exactly.
When in doubt – improvise, right? (Laughter) (Applause) Through singing
is how we engage every child. Through singing is how we teach children to be literate, to read and write. Through singing is how we teach
children to analyze. I was working with a group
of first grade girls, and we were doing a song
about “Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake”. And I had the pitch on the board. Not that they could read the pitch, but I believe
they should confront the example. And throughout the lesson,
we did a number of activities. And at one stage, I said to them, “Let’s look at the song on the board.
What do you notice?” And one of them said,
“It goes up, and it goes down.” This little bright one
by the theater divide said, “Well, there are crotchets
and minims in that song.” (Laughter) And everyone else in the class
went, “Oh, boy.” (Laughter) So at the end of the lesson, I like to make a summary,
“What have we done?” It’s very important for me
to find out what we have done. So all of them are sitting
on the floor, and I said to them, “What did we do today?” “Nothing.” (Laughter) That’s a very common response, “Nothing.” (Laughter) We just jumped,
and we clapped, and we sang. And they went–
and I finally got out what they did. This one put her hand up and said, “Well, we learned about crotchets
and minims, but I had to teach us.” (Laughter) (Applause) Most interesting was watching
the other kids go, “Yeah, that’s true.” (Laughter) So the next day, another song
is on the board, and all these lessons are being videoed,
they’re being taped. Another song on the board,
we’re observing the notation. And at the end of the lesson,
I bring them all together, and I said, “What do you notice
about the notation today? The pattern. It goes up,
it goes down, it does this?” And she was sitting right there,
and she looked up at me, and she said, “I haven’t got a clue.” (Laughter) Which was tolerated
by the rest of the class. (Laughter) That concept. They probably agreed. With music, you open up the mind of a child
in a very special way, different from drama,
different from dance, and different from visual arts. There was a movement which said
all the arts work the same way, when we went through the touchy-feely 60s. That is simply not true.
The arts function in different ways. And music, in my view,
is at the top of the food chain. (Laughter) The drama people tend
not to agree with me on that. (Laughter) But I also put dance in there. But what I want to say is
that the power of the creative thought transferred from music
to all other areas of learning is hugely potent. The neurological evidence for music is in in a spectacular way. That’s a bonus. Music is worth teaching for its own sake. It is worth teaching because it is good, it is worth teaching because it is unique, and it is worth teaching because it empowers
children spectacularly. And when you get a fifth grade boy
who comes up with a piece of music and says, “Look, I made this myself,” with that sort of threat (Laughter) you know it’s working, thank you. (Applause) (Cheers)