How the Covox and Disney Sound Source Worked.

How the Covox and Disney Sound Source Worked.


Let’s imagine it is 1986 and you have a
PC. Now, we didn’t call them MS-DOS computers
back then, we called them IBM compatibles. Unless, of course, you had a real IBM, in
which case you just had an IBM. But anyway, what were your sound options back
then? 99% of PCs had only what we referred to as
the PC-Speaker. Yes, this is the speaker that could produce
square-wave tones that we’re all familiar with. So, how did that work? So, you had these various components like
the CPU, RAM, and video chips. And you had IO ports like the keyboard, serial,
and parallel ports. And you had the PC-speaker. Now, the CPU can read and write to the RAM,
and then send that information along to say the video, or one of the I/O controllers. Or it can send information to the PC-Speaker. Or, more accurately, to the system timer which
controls the speaker. Once the frequency of the tone has been set
in the timer, it will continue to make that tone without the CPU being involved. In many ways, you can think of the PC-speaker
as a one-voice synthesizer that can only produce square waves. Some programmers even made the speaker sound
pretty good by alternating the tones very quickly, giving the illusion of more than
one voice. And some games even managed to produce digital
samples using the PC-Speaker. But since it is a 1-bit sound device, it doesn’t
sound that great. But the real problem with producing digital
samples, is that the CPU has to read every byte from RAM and precisely control every
tick of the PC-speaker, thus hogging up almost all of the CPU time for producing this sound. A few years later with cards like the sound-blaster,
they had something called DMA, which meant that the CPU could simply give one instruction
to the sound card, telling it where the sample was in memory, and the sound card could handle
the task of reading that sample from memory and playing it on it’s own, while the CPU
could go back to it’s own tasks. But then this curious thing came out in 1986
called the Covox Speech Thing for the IBM PC. Of course, Covox was making sampling devices
for other computers back then, such as this Covox Voice Master for the Commodore 64. But, I’m going to tell you right now, I
don’t have the Covox device or the speech thing for the IBM PC. In fact, they’re virtually impossible to
find. They’re very rare. However, I recently received a donation of
a modern clone of the Covox, called the CVX4. And so I’ll be demonstrating this instead
of the original Covox. And since I’ll need a computer to demonstrate
it on, I thought this old 486 laptop would be perfect since it has no sound card built
in and there is virtually no other way to get a sound card in it, at least that will
work with DOS games. So I’ll connect my little Covox clone here
and I’ll need something to hear the sound with, so I’ll use my 1980s bombox. But since I want you guys to be able to hear
this clearly, I’ll pipe the sound through my Zoom H4N to record the audio for you guys. So, how does the Covox work? Well, the parallel port in an IBM compatible
has many pins, but 8 of these can be controlled at will by the CPU. These are essentially general purpose I/O
pins. But if you use them together you can create
an 8-bit value. And the Covox is nothing more than an 8-bit
digital to analog converter that takes these 8 lines and converts it to an analog voltage,
or essentially a line-level audio signal. So, in many ways it works pretty similar to
the PC-speaker, only its connected to the I/O chip and the CPU will still have to work
hard to move the information from RAM one byte at a time. But at least it is 8-bit instead of 1-bit
like the PC Speaker. So, how does it sound? Back in the DOS days there was kind of an
obsession with these Amiga MOD tracker files, and this program was one of many that could
play them on DOS machines. First I’ll configure it to use the PC-Speaker
and let you have an idea what this sounds like. Because it is so faint, I’ll have to put
my microphone right up to the speaker to capture it. You can cycle through different screens while
the music is playing. OK, now let’s configure the program to use
the Covox and try it again. Well, that sure sounds a lot better to me. Even kitty approves! So, considering that this thing relied entirely
on the CPU, and CPUs weren’t even all that fast in 1986, what was it really used for? Well, that’s a good question and I haven’t
been able to find a solid answer on that just yet. I did find a magazine article where somebody
was asking about a software program for digitized speech, and the magazine responded about the
Speech Thing being used for digitized words to be incorporated into BASIC programs. The earliest game I can find that uses the
device is 688 Attack Sub, but it didn’t come out until 1989. So, my guess is, just like the C64 version
of the Covox products, they probably had their own little suite of that came with the original
speech thing. But as time went on, more and more games started
to support the Covox as a sound device. And, one of the big advantages it had was
it’s price. In 1987, the Adlib Sound Synthesizer came
out at $195. The Sound Blaster came out a couple of years
later at $235. But you could buy a Covox Speech Thing for
$79. And while price was in its favor, the big
problem was the complexity of coding required in order to make it work. So, basically any game that were to use it
would require very precision timed software routines in order to be able to produce sound
and also run the game at the same time. Plus, the older machines weren’t all that
fast to begin with so they didn’t have a lot of extra CPU cycles to begin with. In fact, if you look at mobygames, you can
see that only 55 games were known to support the Covox Speech Thing. In 1991, a competing device came onto the
market known as the Disney Sound Source. This product works in a similar way, but sold
for a very aggressive $14 and was even bundled with different games, such as this game, The
Rocketeer. So let’s unbox this and see how it was all
packaged. This box, unfortunately, has seen better days. OK, so here’s the parallel port connector. And here’s the little speaker. And dang! The box almost looks empty. But they’ve hidden the floppy disks down
in this little pocket here. It also comes with some little wheel. My guess is that this is some sort of copy
protection device where it asks you to find some information to start the game. So let’s take a closer look at this thing. This is really where the action happens, this
contains the digital to analog converter and it has a passthrough connector so you could
connect your printer. That way you don’t completely give up your
parallel port to this thing. This part here is just essentially a little
amplifier with a built in speaker. You can sort of see a Mickey Mouse outline
in the speaker, which makes sense being a Disney product. It does run off of batteries, which is sort
of annoying. But it does automatically shut itself off
when not in use by any software. It also has a headphone jack. So, the question is, is the Disney Sound Source
any kind of improvement over the Covox? Well, the answer is yes and no. It has one big advantage and then one huge
disadvantage. Now, the big advantage is that contains a
small FiFo buffer. Let me explain how that works. With the Covox unit, the CPU has to time the
flow of bytes perfectly, thus chewing up a lot of the CPU’s time. With the sound-source, there is a buffer so
the CPU can send the same information but it can do it erratically at it’s leisure
and the buffer will output a steady stream of sound data to the DAC. And while not as good as the direct memory
access we talked about with a sound card, this buffer does remove a huge burden from
the CPU and the programmer because timing is no longer as important. This, combined with Disney’s better marketing
of the product, meant that the sound source got a lot more support from games. And you can see that Mobygames lists 131 games
that support the Sound Source. That’s still a small number compared to
something like the Ad-Lib which had over 1600 titles supporting it, but a lot better than
the Covox. So, what was that huge disadvantage I was
talking about? Well, with the Covox, the frequency can be
anything you desire because it’s entirely up to the CPU to handle timing. Thus, as you can see when playing this mod
file, it’s running at 44 Khz. However, with the Disney Sound Source, it’s
up to this buffer to determine the output frequency and it is fixed at a measly 7 Khz. So, let’s connect the sound source and have
a listen. I’ll have to use a different MOD player
that will support the sound source. But here we go. The bass isn’t bad. But the treble is terrible. Compare that with the Covox again. And now the sound source. Also, the little speaker isn’t great either. Compare with the sound from my boombox. So the Disney Sound Source was really meant
more for, you know, sound effects and a little extra speech and stuff like that to be integrated
into software and games more than it was meant for actual music. And it did pretty well for sound effects and
speech. But really, what good is one of these today
because anyone who has an old MS-DOS computer could probably easily afford, you know, and
actual sound blaster or compatible card to put into it. Well, the big advantage for me anyway is when
I’m wanting to use these old laptops like this one because it doesn’t have a sound
device of any kind and there’s no way to put one in there. Now, granted, only about 15% of the games
out there actually support one of these devices. So, the first thing I want to do is show you
some games that natively support either the cover or the Disney Sound Source. And, I’m going to be using this laptop. No emulator, I want you to actually see and
hear exactly what it sounds like. The first one I’m going to show you is one
of my all time favorites, Duke Nukem 3D. Now this game would have absolutely no sound
or music of any kind on this laptop normally. But it supports the Disney Sound Source for
sound effects only. So, while there is no music, the game is certainly
more enjoyable to play like this. The next game I’ll show you is Prince of
Persia. This game normally just has PC speaker sound
effects on this laptop, but with the Disney Sound Source it is also much more fun to play. Pinball Fantasies actually supports the Covox
and it actually sounds absolutely fantastic. OK, so those were some examples of games that
support one or the other. And that seems to be what I’m finding is
that games support one or the other but not generally both of these devices. But, now I want to show you a way to get even
more games to support the Covox. A few years ago, somebody wrote a Tandy 3-voice
sound emulator that works with the Covox. So once you load that into memory, then you
can start a game, such as Tetris Classic. So, I’ll pick VGA and when it asks what
kind of sound, you can see that number 9 here shows Tandy 3-voice sound. So I’ll pick that. The game complains that it can’t detect
it, but if you ignore the message it works anyway. So, the Tandy sound system is fairly primitive,
but that’s probably why it was chosen as it would be much less CPU intensive to emulate. And it seems to work well. This is much more fun to play than using the
PC-speaker sound. And here’s Populous using the Tandy sound. And here’s Ultima 6 using Tandy sound. Now, Ultima still always plays the sound effects
through the PC speaker, and it even does that with other sound cards too. It tends to only use the sound card for music. And since my recording is only catching the
music, you can’t hear the sound effects here. If you look at mobygames, there are 432 games
that supported Tandy sound, so that opens up a lot more games that can now have sound. OK, so I tried a lot of software using the
Tandy emulator and I found that about half of the software just flat out wouldn’t work,
mostly because it wouldn’t detect the presence of a Tandy sound card. Now, the reason for this is that a lot of
the older games, the way that they would detect for the Tandy was to check the computer’s
BIOS to see if the word Tandy was somewhere in the BIOS. That’s because Tandy computers were the
only ones that shipped with that hardware so it was an easy way to check for the device. And since this emulator only emulates the
hardware, it doesn’t change the code in the system BIOS, so many of the software simply
fail to detect that it’s there. And, there’s no easy fix for that. Still, between the natively supported games
and the games that will work with the Tandy emulator, that’s a pretty large selection
of games that can now have sound on this machine using a simply device like this. And, there’s one more thing I haven’t
shown you. Believe it or not, almost all of the Sierra
adventure games can be made to work. Somebody recently created a new driver that
you can copy into the folder of Sierra games and it supports a special 4 voice mode. Keep in mind these voices are essentially
created in realtime with software so they can’t be too fancy. Nevertheless, I can now play these games with
some music. Normally, a game like this has no music at
all, only some beep-like sound effects from the PC speaker. So, between the native support, the Tandy
emulator, and all of the Sierra games, there are now many hundreds of games that can have
sound on this 486 laptop, even though it doesn’t officially support any sort of sound card. So that’s cool, and if you’re into old
laptops like I am, then is definitely an inexpensive device that would definitely give some sound
to your old laptop. And I’ll put a link down in the description
field where you can buy one of these, and no I’m not making any money off of this. But, I think there’s a lot of other vintage
enthusiasts out there that would probably enjoy getting their hands on one of these. So, that’s it for this time, so thanks for
watching and stick around until next time!

Using Music With Story For Personal Inspiration kiwiconnexion practical theology

Using Music With Story For Personal Inspiration kiwiconnexion practical theology


Welcome everyone. I’m David Bell. A question on most people’s minds these days
is: how can we live well? Over the last three episodes we’ve looked at our personal memories as well as our common cultural memes; memory is key to our identity. We also considered the Danish way of cultivating an inner and
outer life, hygge, balancing hospitality with warmth and
contentment. And last episode we thought about having a purpose, being a purpose and living out a purpose: life design and design for life. This week we concentrate on music and story in a well-lived life. Why do music and story matter so much? Most of us have learnt in early childhood to sing simple songs around our parents and
siblings, and to skip and perform little dances. We enter the world of music from a very young
age, perhaps the outset of birth, it’s in the memes, the cultural memory. But today’s world is as equally cursed with noise as it is blessed with music. What’s missing, fundamentally and obviously, in our city environments, is silence. Silence is like the white space so necessary in typography. There it gives space for type to breathe. The well-designed page is a joy to the eye. Just so in music. And in story. There’s rhythm in speech as well as song. The well-told story is an aural experience in and of itself. We are our memories. We are our stories. We are the music we make and we are the silences we inhabit. You’ll have noticed how uncomfortable some people are with silence. They will go to great lengths to avoid it. That’s kind of understandable, but not always desirable. Speech and song are equal partners in the innate desire to communicate. We need to feel this as a two way event. We have to receive and we have to transmit. So how do speech and song really work? Yehudi Menhuin remarked, �Music creates order out of chaos; for rhythm imposes unanimity upon the divergent; melody imposes continuity upon the disjointed; and harmony imposes compatibility upon the
incongruous.� Because music and story are fundamental to self-expression we need to build some simple strategies to
help us. And the clue is in the timbre of the silences and white spaces, the rhythms, the melodies, the harmonies of existence itself. First strategy, let’s deal to the noise. Noise is an obvious irritant, the opposite of music. But noise is not just in music, it permeates the world of story. Every ad agency, media feed, tv channel, multi-national, swanky corporate, and government department insists on everyone being able to tell their
story. So many stories our own unique story is likely to get swamped. Who, we ask in a moment of self-doubt, is interested? If self-affirmation is measured in Facebook
likes the world really doesn’t care all that much about anyone. But the reverse is true: in the most profound way, the world does care. I would also want to say that God cares. As I said the clue is in the timbre of the silences. Our uniqueness, how we tell our story, how we shape it, who we tell it to, only becomes clear when we give it space to breathe. We intentionally and deliberately have to set our own lives into their unique space-time context. Only by creating surrounding silences will our story become our story in the universe of stories. The song we long to sing, the story we long to tell, can only be heard when we rid ourselves of the chaos of noise. Second strategy. When we attend to the timbre of the silences, we not only have space to begin to voice our music and story, we have space afterwards – when the final note has died away. It is in the silence after our song, our story, that we snatch fragments of other inner voices singing our song. The ancient memes, carrying the archetypal memories of who we are, why we are, what we are becoming
– these echo our story of personal identity. Third and final strategy. We have forgotten the art of story told in community. When church becomes the place of finding your voice, it thrives because you thrive. This episode wraps up the series. Members of kiwiconnexion.nz can also watch the special story created for each video, participate in the forums and more. Y ou can also learn more about all of this in the public video series C G Jung and the
Psyche: exploring the contours of a 21st century soul. To find it visit our website kiwiconnexion.nz Subscribe, like and share in YouTube, purple-yellow button below right and on Facebook. For YouTube subscribers a new volume of Far Country talltruetales begins tomorrow. See you same time, same channel, every Wednesday and Thursday. And thanks for watching.

Bekah Costa – Jesus (Clipe Oficial MK Music)

Bekah Costa – Jesus (Clipe Oficial MK Music)


Drax Project – Woke Up Late ft. Hailee Steinfeld (Official Music Video) Starring Liza Koshy

Drax Project – Woke Up Late ft. Hailee Steinfeld (Official Music Video) Starring Liza Koshy


Woke up late Some where far away from home Pockets empty, wallet gone The sun is streaming all on down on my face Laying down on someones bed A girl that I had hardly met My head is spinnin like I’ve been out days Now you’re waking up too Lying next to me in your room Not quite used to someone so new Did you catch my name Yea Wonder how long I slept in I don’t know where the hell I’ve been But I know that’s all right Last night We met at 1 Drank till 2 Danced till 4 Walked you home Awake till dawn Slept till noon and now I want more I got that taste, ohhhhh It’s in my mouth it’s like I had too much last night It just felt so right because of you now I could go or I could stay cause I, got nothing planned today and I know that’s all right Last night we met at 1 Drank till 2 Danced till 4 Walked you home Awake till dawn Slept till noon and now I want more Why’s it so so easy with the lights down? Why’s it so so easy when the nights ours? Why’s it so so easy with the lights down Why’s it so so easy yea So so easy oh Woke up late Some where far away from home Pockets empty wallet gone The sun is streaming all on down on my face yea Last night was fun let’s do it again We both know we’re more than friends and I know that’s all right Last night, we met at 1 Drank till 2 Danced till 4 Walked you home, awake till dawn Slept till noon and now I want more Last night, we met at 1 Drank till 2, danced till 4 I walked you home, awake till dawn Slept till noon, and now I want more Why’s it so so easy with the lights down

Tumhari Nazar Kyon Khafa Ho Gayi (sad) – Md Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Do Kaliyan Song

Tumhari Nazar Kyon Khafa Ho Gayi (sad) – Md Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Do Kaliyan Song


Tumhari nazar kyon khafa ho gayi Khata baksh do gar khata ho gayi Hamara iraada to kuchh bhi na tha Tumhari khata khud sazaa ho gayi Sazaa kuchh bhi do par Khata to bata do Meri begunahi ka Kuchh to sila do Mere dil ke maalik Mere devta Bas ab zulm ki Inteha ho gayi Hamara iraada to kuchh bhi na tha Tumhari khata khud sazaa ho gayi Tumhari nazar kyon khafa ho gayi Khata baksh do gar khata ho gayi

Top Songs 2020 | Best English Songs Of 2020 | New Songs 2020

Top Songs 2020 | Best English Songs Of 2020 | New Songs 2020


Hello friends ! If you like this channel music please like & share, subscribe channel. Thanks you very much !!

Way Up High in an Apple Tree – Apple Song for Kids – Children’s Song by The Learning Station

Way Up High in an Apple Tree – Apple Song for Kids – Children’s Song by The Learning Station


(music) way up high in an apple tree five red apples smiled down at me i shook that tree as hard as i could down came an apple mmmmm it was good way up high in an apple tree four red apples smiled down at me way up high in an apple tree four red apples smiled down at me i shook that tree as hard as i could down came an apple mmmm it was good way up high in the apple tree three red apples smiled down at me way up high in the apple tree three red apples smiled down at me i shook that tree as hard as i could down came an apple mmmmm it was good way up high in the apple tree two red apples smiled down at me way up high in the apple tree two red apples smiled down at me i shook that tree as hard as i could down came an apple mmmmm it was good way up high in the apple tree one red apple smiled down at me way up high in the apple tree one red apple smiled down at me i shook that tree as hard as i could down came an apple mmmmm it was good way up high in the apple tree no red apples smiled down at me way up high in the apple tree no red more apples smiled down at me i shook that tree as hard as i could down came no apples they’re gone for good way up high in the apple tree no more apples left for me

The Happy Animal Choir | Animal Sounds Song | Toddler Fun Learning

The Happy Animal Choir | Animal Sounds Song | Toddler Fun Learning


One day a little girl called Poppy went for
a walk in the jungle.   Poppy had the most beautiful singing voice,  but she had nobody
to sing with.   More than anything, she wanted to start a choir and sing with other people.
  Just when she thought she wouldn’t ever find anybody to sing with, she came across
a dog. So she asked the dog: Excuse me doggy, would you like to be in my
choir? What noise can you make?
Woof! Thats lovely! You can be in my choir, see
you later! Oh hello froggy, would you like to be in my
choir? What noise can you make?
Ribbit Ribbit Oh that’s perfect!  You can be in my choir
too, see you later! Monkey! Please come down from the tree! Would
you like to be in my choir? What noise do you make?
Ooooh ooooh ah ah Thats just what I’m after! You can be in my
choir too, see you later Hello Snake. I’m looking for friends to join
my choir, what noise do you make? Hisssss
What a lovely sound! You can be in my choir Hello Lion.  Are you a friendly lion
Good, would you like to be in my choir? What noise do you make?
ROAR Wow. As long as you don’t chase the other
animals, you can be in my choir Hello little mouse.  I have one space left
in my choir, would you like to join us? I’ll take that as a yes, what noise do you
make? Squeak Squeak
You might have to sing a bit louder, but that’s exactly what I’m looking for.  Lets go and
meet the others and have a practise! A one, a two, a one two three four! The dog goes woof! Woof Woof! The frog goes ribbit. Ribbit Ribbit Ribbit The monkey goes oooooh ooooh ah ah ooooh,
ooooh oooooh ah ah ah ah ooh The snake goes hiss Hiss Hiss hiss hiss The lion goes ROAR! Roar roar roar The mouse goes squeak, squeak, squeak squeak squeak, squeak squeak squeak squeak squeak squeak squeak We are the happy animal choir and we are the very best of friends.   We love to make everyone smile with our music, sing along. The dog goes woof. Woof Woof! The frog goes ribbit. Ribbit Ribbit The monkey goes oooooh ooooh ah ah ooooh, ooooh oooooh ah ah ah ah oooh. The snake goes hiss. Hiss Hiss Hiss The lion goes Roar. Roar Roar Roar! The mouse goes squeak, squeak, squeak squeak squeak, squeak squeak squeak squeak squeak squeak squeak. We are the happy animal choir and we are the very best of friends.   We love to make everyone smile with our music, sing along. The dog goes woof. Woof Woof Woof! The frog goes ribbit! Ribbit Ribbit Ribbit The monkey goes oooooh ooooh ah ah ooooh,
ooooh oooooh ah ah ah ah ooh.

New latest Bollywood song remix Ringtone of 2019 | #bollywoodsongringtone #newringtone

New latest  Bollywood song remix Ringtone of 2019 | #bollywoodsongringtone #newringtone


🎵🎵 @music 🎵🎵